Alfred (foreground) received a life-time suspension effective February 4, 2008.

Alfred (foreground) received a life-time suspension effective February 4, 2008.

Photo: Mitch Friedman (file photo)

Track cyclist Stephen Alfred has been handed a life-time ban from sport after refusing to submit to an out-of-competition doping test last November. The violation was Alfred’s third breach of anti-doping rules.

The U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) announced the penalty on Tuesday, noting that the sanction will be enforced by USA Cycling and became effective on Monday.

According to a statement issued by USADA, the 40-year-old Alfred refused to take part in an out-of-competition doping control test on November 26, 2007. Under the provisions of the World Anti-Doping Code, non-compliance with a request for an out-of-competition test without compelling justification constitutes an anti-doping violation.

Alfred had already tested positive for norandrosterone at the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He received a six-month suspension for that violation. Alfred subsequently tested positive for exogenous testosterone or its precursors and for an elevated testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in an out-of-competition test conducted by USADA in May of 2006. He then tested positive for human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at the 2006 at the Pan American Cycling Championships in Brazil the following month. The May 2006 and June 2006 positive tests were treated as a single doping offense according to the World Anti-Doping Code.

Following the 2006 violation, Alfred was suspended for eight years, but was still subject to provisions of the WADC and subject to unannounced testing.

Alfred, a sprinter, was a member of the team representing the U.S. at the 2005 world championships in Los Angeles and has earned several national titles in his discipline.

Alfred is the second American cyclist banned for life under provisions of the WADC. Track racer Tammy Thomas was banned for life in 2002 after her second doping violation. Thomas is currently under a federal indictment for perjury after testifying in the BALCO case in California.