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Calculating a wheel’s moment of inertia

As long as you move a rigid object in a straight line, it does not matter how its mass is distributed throughout it; the amount of work to move it will be the same. This is not true if you drive the object by rotating it; then how the mass is distributed does play an important role in how much energy it takes to move it. In the case of a wheel, it is probably obvious that it will take more work to accelerate it if the mass is concentrated out at its edge than at its center. But how do you quantify that?